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Feeding Birds

Offering food to wild birds is a delightful hobby. We love to see our avian friends flitter to a backyard buffet. When starting out, it’s important to decide what kinds of birds you want to attract. Then you need to provide the correct food and type of feeder for them. Often the cheaper mixes of seed are not good value because they contain filler that birds avoid—and that you must clean up. Part of the challenge is to keep the food fresh and feeders clean so that we do not harm the birds we hope to help!

For a quick overview, see National Audubon Society’s 11 Tips for Feeding Backyard Birds at There you’ll find links to pdfs for more info. Also check out Cornell Lab of Ornithology’s Feeding Birds resources. They explain how to choose the right feeder, the kinds of foods that common feeder birds like, and how to properly clean feeders and prevent disease.

Barb Whipkey’s Photography

Many of these pages come from the Lab’s Project Feeder Watch. Check out their learning page for more in-depth articles and resources! Feeder birds sometimes ignite a passion for learning more about birds in general. You might want to learn to identify particular visitors, or you might realize there are lots more birds that don’t eat seed or suet.

Once you get your backyard feeding stations set up and you become familiar with your visitors, check out this cool way you can help science! Identify and count the birds coming to your feeders at various times during the winter and report your results to Project Feeder Watch. National Audubon Society also has a bird survey weekend in February called the Great Backyard Bird Count!

The following article comes from the National Audubon Society.

To Feed, or Not to Feed?

Backyard feeders are good for birds, as long as you follow these simple guidelines. A lot of people like to feed birds. More than 40 percent of Americans make it a regular habit. But a nibble of backyard suet or peck at the communal feeder may hold hidden risks for birds, reports a recent study in Ecology Letters

Daniel Becker, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Georgia’s Odum School of Ecology, and his team wanted to better understand how the various ways we humans feed wild animals—whether intentional (feeders or tourist hangouts) or not (landfills or loose garbage cans)—affects their risk of infectious disease. So Becker and his team analyzed what was out there—20 published research papers on host-pathogen interactions in human-fed wild populations—finding intentional feeding changed wild animal behavior and diet enough to give parasites and viruses the upper hand. Out of these 20 studies, only a handful considered feathered species, but none were happy cases.

“Feeders can bring unexpected species together and bring birds together more frequently than normal, creating ideal conditions for parasites and other contaminates,” Becker says. That birds often crowd into tight spaces to get at the tasty morsels also makes it easier for pathogens to leap between birds.

Feeders, they found, have contributed to outbreaks of House Finch Eye Disease (Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis) and virulent strains of the respiratory disease Trichomoniasis. Dependable human-supplied meals can also alter wild animals’ behavior, they found. In one study, Spanish White storks skipped their typical North-African winter migration in favor of sticking around their landfill-loaded breeding grounds. This means sick birds that would normally be subject to “migratory culling,” as Becker delicately puts it—meaning they wouldn’t survive the flight—are allowed the chance of continued life, becoming a constant source of exposure to their peers at the benefit of the pathogen infecting them.

How to Feed the Birds without Feeding Disease

So should we stop feeding birds? “Absolutely not,” says Becker, “there are plenty of simple things we can do to avoid many of these potential outcomes.”

Feeding birds is particularly important in the wake of winters like the one just past. Migrating species on the East Coast are returning to snow-covered soil prompting wildlife groups to ask for the public’s help in feeding.

Stephen Kress, director of Audubon’s Project Puffin, says safe bird feeding includes completely scrubbing out feeders with a 10 percent non-chlorinated bleach solution at least a few times a year, and certainly between seasons. It also means researching the favorite foods of the species you want to attract, the feeder styles they like best, and where to hang feeders.

“Bird seed mixtures targeted to a wide range of species are the cheapest, but most wasteful, packed with fillers like milo that most birds pick through, resulting in a mess under the feeder,” says Kress. The mess can quickly become a sludgy mixture that can make birds sick, so it should be cleaned up in the winter or raked out when conditions are drier, says Kress. To avoid exposing ground-feeding birds to the goo, he adds, put up a platform that drains well.

“To avoid this you can buy specific seeds for specific feeders—for example cracked corn and millet to put in one and then just sunflowers in another,” he says. “This decreases interactions between the species that eat the different seeds, and waste, dramatically.”

So go ahead and feed the birds—but if you do, realize you’re taking on the task of cleaning up after them, too.

Note: Please support our local wild bird seed provider Wild Birds Unlimited. They will guide you with proper seed selection, bird feeders, and many other supplies for your backyard birds. Visit them online or at their locations in Lexington Park and La Plata, Maryland.